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How to Install nginx on Ubuntu.

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How to Install nginx on Ubuntu

What is Reverse Proxy?

Reverse proxy is a type of proxy server that lives inside a private network and redirect client requests (from outside the network) to appropriate hosts inside the private network.

Just to explain how nginx reverse proxy works. Let's say a Windows client request access to mail.com. The request will go straight to 8.8.8.8 (or google) to get the IP address of the mail.com. Let's say the returned IP address is 123.456.50.1 (which is the address of the nginx server. As soon as the request goes to nginx server it decides where to forward this request. The decision is made upon the configuration file stored in the nginx server. In our example let's say the (internal) IP address of mail server is 192.168.0.1. The request will be forwarded to it and the communication channel will be created between client and the mail server.

Install nginx on Ubuntu:

Before we start let's make sure our system is up-to-date. So let's type:

new
sudo apt-get update

After the system is updated type the following command to install nginx:

sudo apt install nginx

Configuring the firewall:

Before moving forward we need to configure the firewall on Ubuntu and make sure nginx is registered as a service. In Ubuntu the firewall software is called ufw. To list the configuration of firewall type the following command:

sudo ufw app list

This should produce the output similar to the following:

Output
Available applications:
  Nginx Full
  Nginx HTTP
  Nginx HTTPS
  OpenSSH

According to the above output there are three profiles available for nginx:

 - Nginx Full: This profile opens both port 80 (which is http) and port 443 (which is https) tsl/ssl encrypted traffic

 - Nginx HTTP: This profile only opens port 80 (HTTP)

 - Nginx HTTPS: This profile only opens port 443 (HTTPS)

In order to allow traffic only on port 80 you can type:

sudo ufw allow 'Nginx HTTP'

To verify the change, type:

sudo ufw status

You should be able to see the HTTP traffic allowed:

Output
Status: active

To                         Action      From
--                         ------      ----
OpenSSH                    ALLOW       Anywhere                  
Nginx HTTP                 ALLOW       Anywhere                  
OpenSSH (v6)               ALLOW       Anywhere (v6)             
Nginx HTTP (v6)            ALLOW       Anywhere (v6)

NOTE: Nginx HTTP (v6) means IPV6 and you can ignore that if you are using IPV4 which is default these days.

Checking nginx server status:

In order to check the status of nginx server type:

sudo systemctl status nginx

You should be able to see the following output:

Output
● nginx.service - A high performance web server and a reverse proxy server
   Loaded: loaded (/lib/systemd/system/nginx.service; enabled; vendor preset: enabled)
   Active: active (running) since Monday 2019-09-09 16:24:47 UTC; 12h ago
     Docs: man:nginx(8)
 Main PID: 8416 (nginx)
    Tasks: 2 (limit: 1018)
   CGroup: /system.slice/nginx.service
           ├─2369 nginx: master process /usr/sbin/nginx -g daemon on; master_process on;
           └─2380 nginx: worker process

Other useful commands:

sudo systemctl start nginx

sudo systemctl restart nginx

sudo systemctl stop nginx

OR

sudo service nginx start

sudo service nginx restart

sudo service nginx stop

OR

sudo /etc/init.d/nginx start

sudo /etc/init.d/nginx restart

sudo /etc/init.d/nginx stop

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